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Iqbal’s Critique of Democracy

by Mujibur Rahman (Senior Advocate, Bangladesh Supreme Court, Former Minister Information, East Pakistan.)

Islam is a universal religion and Al-Quran is a guidance for mankind ( Hudal Lin Nas). Its address is to mankind as a whole. (Ya Aiyyu Han Nas). Islam does not admit of any geographical limitation.” It creates, rather, a League of Nations. 1

Allama Iqbal was not only the greatest Poet-Philosopher of Islam but also an outstanding thinker of the Century with international stature. So his approach was also to entire mankind. His conscious and sensitive mind used to sharply react on any invasion on human dignity, justice and equity, any where in the world. His protest was bold and highly reasoned. His criticism was deeply philosophical and pragmatic.

Iqbal’s Views on Western Democracy

Allama Iqbal having critically examined the concept of modern secular democracy as preached and practised by the West observed in Zarb-e-Kalim: Democracy counts the heads and does not weight the brain. His view on Payam-e_Mashriq is to remain aloof from Western democracy. According to him the brain of two hundred asses cannot produce the brain of single person. Iqbal could not reconcile with Western democracy on the main ground that popularity is yard stick, though without ability and wisdom a man can be popular. Iqbal gave this message to the West through his Gulshan-e-Raz that Satan was let loose through Western democracy which is a naked sword in the hand of the political factions. Iqbal heard the voice of imperialism in the flute of Western democracy(Khizr-e-Rah). In Bang-i-Dara (The Sound of the Caravan Bell) Iqbal castigated Western democracy and said that except imperialism there is nothing in it. In the garb of democracy a ghost of oppression has been dancing, mistakenly considered as a so-called beautiful fairy of independence. He observed inter alia that the sole function of Western democracy is to exploit the poor in the interest of the rich.2 According to him the institution and civilization built upon secular democracy can never be sound and best. Iqbal pointed out the defects of narrow concept of dialectical materialism and capitalistic Western democracy, and according to him Class War is the result of Western Democracy where as justice and unanimity are results of Islamic democracy.3 Islam does not allow to deal with others unjustly, nor it allows to be dealt with unjustly.4 He cautioned that democracy was a coat which several European countries discarded after trial and which a number of Asiatic countries have picked up to wear however ill fitting it may be.

 

Democracy – Secular

Allama Iqbal, in fact, was correct in his views about Western (Secular) democracy which despite its apparently lucrative and theoretical sense: Government of the people, by the People and for the People, in practice, failed to deliver goods. The outstanding Western political philosophers themselves had to admit the failure of secular democracy. Though sovereignty in Western democracy, it is theoretically claimed, lies with the people, but no sooner the election is over, the People in fact go under the domination of the elected rulers practically for all intents and purposes.

The Western views

Having studied the result of secular democracy, the Western political philosophers themselves are convinced that democracy cannot achieve at all the purpose for which it is theoretically expected and they had to corroborate Iqbal’s view.

England is considered to be the cradle of modern democracy, professor Harold J Laski observed that one cannot understand the parliamentary system in Great Britain unless one recognizes that, beneath the appearance of democracy, this is the economic and social system it is intended to uphold. It was made by the owners of the instruments of production in the interest of their property: and the safeguarding of their conception of their rights is inherent in all the rules by which it moves; it has been compelled to confer the franchise upon the masses; it has been careful to maintain for property the substance of effective authority.5

Professor Laski further observed that these are not characteristics of Great Britain only; they are universal in capitalistic democracies. Some forces are compelling the consolidation of Republicans and Democrats in the United States as a party of property seeking to resist the invasion of its hitherto uncontrolled empire.6 Professor Harold j Laski in his analysis of the conduct of the voters and the leaders in democracy in his book, Democracy in Crisis, observes that the decisions of the voters in choosing their Governors are influenced by considerations which escape all scientific analysis.7 Laski, refers to Rousseau and observes that there is a vital truth in Rousseau’s taunt that electorate is free only at election and that freedom is but the prelude to a new domination, it cannot choose the representative it wants; it can only strike blindly against those at whom it feels a passing indignation. Every political conflict is the battle of two active minorities for the possession of the inert multitude.8 Bertrand Russell observes that when it is a democracy, the ordinary citizen has very little sense of political power, he does not decide what are to be issues in the election and he is not concerned with matters remote from his daily life, which are almost wholly outside his experiences, and his vote makes so small a contribution to the total that it is negligible.9

British Statesman Sir Stafford Cripps in Democracy Up To Date is of the opinion that in fact democracy does not exist in any country to make an approach to achieve Government of the People, by the People and, for the People: and he further holds the view that Western European countries survive as democracies only in name.10 He points out that democratic system is highly expensive and paying capacity of the candidate contributes a lot in getting a success in the election.14 Stafford Cripps having analyzed modern democracy as a system of government, says : “ To all intents and purposes the British democracy is today accepting the dictatorship of the Prime Minister as substitute for its own actions. It is not necessary to review the very similar symptoms of democratic Government, which have made themselves apparent all over the world, in some places to a greater and in others to a lesser degree. 12

George Barnard Shaw (1856-1950) was of the view that democracy is constituted of by the votes of the incompetent many, for appointment of the corrupt few to run a bad government on a false slogan of public interest.

Shaw in Man and Superman, under the heading “The Political Need for the Superman” admits in an unambiguous way: “We have been driven to Proletarian Democracy by the failure of all the alternative systems. Democracy cannot rise above the level of human material of which its voters are made. When a Great Political movement takes place it is not consciously led nor organized: the unconscious self in mankind breaks its way through the problem as an elephant breaks through a jungle. He has other interesting but wise views against Western brand of democracy. Secular World without studying Islam as a system of life and its form of Government concluded that each Government throughout the world is unsatisfactory. Winston Churchill sarcastically says that democracy is the least unsatisfactory.

Let us turn to India. Mr. Kuldip Nayar in an article “Between The Lines” remarks on Indian Democracy: Parliament, though democratically elected, does not evoke trust; it is considered as a part of a system that is corrupt and antiquated. Many of its members are believed to be in pay of lobbies of industrialists and even when an M.P expresses himself honestly, there is a tendency to see some kind of hand behind him. The way many members are elected with money and muscle power, has devalued the image of democracy.13 In an article “Law: Ally And Corrective of Democracy “reported in AIR JOURNAL 1969, Mr. Justice Tek Chand, Punjab High Court observes, “The next question which waits enquiry is: has democracy, as an ideal worthy of pursuit, become outmoded because of its failure due to inherent weaknesses? The optimism that prevailed at one time with regard to democratic institutions is being dispelled. The democratic institutions recently seem to have abjectly surrendered before the onslaught of absolutism. Friends of democracy are supporting with declining conviction. According to some it is in retreat. According to others, it is at the cross roads. The future of democracy is said to be bleak and dismal”.14

In a conference held in Rhodes, in October, 1958, under the patronage of the Congress for Cultural Freedom, two important papers were read, one was by Western intellectual: Bertrand de Juouvenel of France and the other by Daya Krishna of India, both of them agreed that democracy is more a myth than reality.

To combat capitalism, the child of Western democracy and its other drawbacks, Karl Marx presented his concept of Communism as counterblast which also had to vanish away due to its inherent defects. The concept: “New World Order as the last stake of the Western political gamblers repeats the past mistakes. It is an old but a stale wine in a new bottle.

Absence of a sound, wise and impartial sovereign, absence of a complete code of life with an ideal sense of direction to solve basic human problem, the heterogeneous Western society, disregard to any ethical standards of life and absence of faith in accountability to the Supreme Power are the main reasons for the failure of Secular democracy.

The Western Political Philosophers wanted to graft democracy as a form of government with the Western secular society divided by racialism, colour, prejudice, difference of nobles and commoners, exploiters and exploited dictators, and dictated with unavoidable result that the values of democracy proved to be totally foreign bodies to the said society. The artificial graft had to die a sure death.

Basic Causes of Failure of Western Democracy

THE Western Political Philosophers have, themselves pointed out the basic causes of failure. Edward Benes said: Success of Democracy requires an integrated society based on equality but he finds European society otherwise.15 Professor Laski in his article “The Internal Conditions of Democracy” observed that democracy might endure so long as men felt that they had great ends of life in common and the values they sought to realize were the same values.16 John Dewey in his article “ Democracy ” observes that democracy is now challenged as they never have been before. The main cause of failure of Secular Democracy, according to him, is that Democracy had not become a part of the bone and blood of the people in daily conduct of life. Democratic forms were limited to parliament elections and combats between the parties and that unless democratic habits of thought and action are part of the fiber of a people, political democracy is insecure. It cannot stand in isolation. It must be buttressed by the presence of democratic methods in all social relations.17 Having realized the failure of democracy in the United States of America, Walt Whitman in his article Democratic Vistas prescribes that to meet the situation in future, whole mass of American mentality, taste and belief should be changed and a new breath of life is to be introduced into national life affecting politics for more than the popular superficial suffrage, accomplishing a religious and moral character beneath the political productive and intellectual bases of the states.18

The aforesaid pre-conditions for success of democracy as suggested by Edward Bens, Laski, John Dewey and Walt Whitman, though conspicuously absent in Western Society but are present in Islamic society in their totality. Let us examine social, political and economic democracies in Islam.

Islam and Social Democracy

Foundation of social democracy is laid on the concept of oneness of God (Tauhid) and Unity of mankind as members of a single Brotherhood. Islam established brotherhood and equality of man which are the basic ingredients of democracy. Al-Quran declares that from out of one pair, mankind is created and from out of it countless men and women are scattered.19 It is further declared that mankind was created out of one male and one female and made into Nations and Tribes only for knowing each other ( not that they may despise ach other), certainly the most honored in the sight of God is he who is the most Righteous.20 Prophet(PBUH) in his Farewell address also said. “O ye people, Allah says you are created from one male and one female and made into tribes and nations so that you could be identified. Verily in the sight of Allah, the most honoured is the one who is the most God fearing. There is no superiority for an Arab over a non-Arab and for a non-Arab over an Arab, nor for white over the black nor for the black over the white, except in piety. All mankind is the progeny of Adam who was fashioned out of clay. Behold, every claim of privilege whether that of blood or property, is under my heels.” Muslim Ummah is also compared with a building, by the Prophet, where each brick in co-operation with other bricks maintains and strengthens the building. The brotherhood of Muslims is also compared with human body. If one part feels pain rest also react (Al-Hadith). The social status of each human being along with Ideological goal of life is same which was preached and practiced by Islam. The Prophet (Peace be upon Him) took the lead not only to free the slaves but also to establish them with social prestige and dignity. Even during the Meccan period Hazrat Khadijatul Qubra(RA) spent her wealth on this programme, Zaid on being freed was taken as member of their family and married to Zainab, cousin of the Prophet (Peace be upon Him ). The Prophet ( Peace bre upon Him) gave him generalship of an army consisting of leading persons among Muhajreen and Ansars and on his death, his son Osama was given leadership to be followed by companions like Abu Bakar, Umar and others. Belal on being freed was put in a highly respectable position of the Muadhin. Having seen Belal coming, even Umar the Great used to address him with great respect that the leader was coming. Sultan Mahmud and his servant Aiyaz, as said by Iqbal, could stand side by side on the same line with no difference between them.

In the context of the failure of other religious and man made isms, modern world craves for a proper and practical guideline to solve human problems and to foster brotherhood and toleration to establish peace. Islam alone can take the leadership to fulfill the expectation of the world community and save mankind. Even the Western non-Muslim Scholars and Orientalists admit that Islam alone can give proper guidance in this respect. A.J. Toynbee in Civilization on Trial, observes: the extinction of race consciousness as between Muslims is one of the outstanding moral achievements of Islam and in the contemporary world, it is conceivable that the spirit of Islam might be the timely reinforcement which would decide this issue in favour of tolerance and peace.21 Having considered the merit of Islam for the solution of world problems, Toynbee invoked Islam in the following terms :”if the present situation of mankind were to precipitate for peace, Islam might be moved to play her historic role once again”. He on study of Islam was amazed with regard to Brotherhood in Islam and observed : that when the Ideology of the Brotherhood of men fired from the cannon mouth of Islam, it set the whole world ablaze. And he was highly convinced that Islam is the only framework within which the hopes and aspirations of mankind can be fulfilled.22 Islamic society by itself is a democratic one as such is an appropriate and a fertile field to facilitate the growth and development of political and economic democracies.

Islam and Political Democracy

In Islamic system of life, Democracy is an indispensable political ideal which as a form of world government is compatible with Quranic Way of life. Al-Quran provides a complete code of life to solve all human problems, material and spiritual. Every sphere of life is blended into one legal system Shariah of Islam which is the only system of life that has subordinate Government, Law and Justice to moral values. Iqbal criticized politics without moral basis in strong terms: If the Deen is divorced or separated from politics, what remains is Chengizi. H.G. Wells in his Outline of History, in appreciation of Islamic System of Life , said that it was the broadest, freshest and cleanest political ideal that had yet to come in to actual activity in the world and it offered better terms than any other to the mass of mankind.23

The Foundation of Islamic Democracy is laid down by Al-Quran and Sunnah of the Prophet, with all its ingredients and pre-conditions. Islam casts a duty upon men, the vicegerents of God on the earth, to individually and collectively implement Islamic Scheme of Life towards establishment of God’s Kingdom on this earth. Consultation in matters of administration had been made obligatory in Islam and to consult them in affairs (of moment). Then when thou has taken decision, put thy trust in God, for God loves those who put their trust (in Him).24 Mutual consultation has been enjoined in conducting affairs.25Prophet and Khulafa-e-Rashedeen rigidly followed the principle of consultation. Umar had two Shuras, the first one was special and second one was broad based with wise people from among the Muhajreen and Ansars. He was of the view that Khilafat, without Majlis-e-Shura, was impossible. Functions of Majlis-e-Shura may be compared with the functions of modern Parliaments with the difference that the former acts on Divine guidance, the Sunnah of the Prophet (PBUH) and according to ideologically homogeneous values, whereas the latter acts without any divine code and ethical mooring. In the election of Khulafe-e-Rashedeen preliminary selection in the form of a nomination used to be made by the limited elderly and wise section with mutual consultation. In each case approval by the Community was essential. The elected Caliphs in their usual speeches after election, had to address the people ensuring them that the Caliph would act according to the dictates of Al-Quran and Sunnah which ensured people’s rights and prescribed obligation of the Caliphs. The people have all the freedom to criticise the activities of the Caliph. Deviation from the fundamentals of Islam would even entail removal from office. Umar was warned by a man “ I swear that If thou commitest errors, we shall not hesitate to punish thee with our swords”. To these frank words Umar replied:” I thank God that there may be found among the Muslims the one to correct Umar’s errors with a sword. “ While Umar was in the midst of his Khutba, one of the persons from the congregation rose up and asked: “ Where from you have got the cloth for long dress ?” His son Abdullah Bin-Umar stood up with his old and short dress and replied that he had given his share of the cloth to his father. According to Islam greatest Jihad is the expression of word of Justice before the Oppressive Ruler.26

Since Al-Quran and Sunnah give the basic guideline for a homogeneous, indivisible and integrated life style, there is no scope for the rulers and the ruled to be deviated from the paths of equality, justice and fair deal to all. The ingredients and basic principles of Democracy are, as such, inherently embedded in the Islamic system of life itself. There is no scope for any ruler to be either a dictator or an autocrat in Islam, by taking recourse to a free style exercise to power, so long he follows Quranic way of life. Unlike the secular West, Islam instead of taking democracy as an isolated and casual venture during election at long intervals establishes a society which by itself is based on liberty, equality and fraternity, the sheet anchors of democracy. So success of democracy under Islam is the necessary corollary to Islamic social, cultural, political and economic systems integrated under one code of life. Non-Muslim thinkers had to admit the superiority of Islam in respect of democracy. The religion revealed to Prophet Mohammad (Peace be upon Him) not only taught the loftiest principles of liberty , equality and fraternity, but also ensured the principles of cultural, political and economic democracies. It was almost twelve centuries before the idea became known in Europe that democracy was preached and practiced by Islam with a unique success. Charis Waddy takes it as a surprise that Islam preached and practiced liberty, fraternity and equality, the principles of democracy, one thousand years before the French Revolution (1789 A.D) the historians of the West, date democracy from the French Revolution without ….But unless a society is mentally trained up with fundamental values of Equality, Brotherhood and Common Ideology, democracy can neither grow nor thrive even if thrust upon from above. It is a fact of history that Napoleon took up power within 15 years of French Revolution as a monarch and was declared Emperor. The slogans of liberty, equality and fraternity, evaporated away not only from France but also from European continent as a consequence of Napoleonic hegemony.

Sarojni Naidu in one of her speeches in London referring to Prophet Muhammad ( Peace be upon Him) drew the attention of the West to the fact that what the West dreamt today was not merely a dream but fulfilled fourteen hundred years ago when the lonely dreamer of the desert, communing with the stars, first realized the brotherhood of man and the right of every individual to freedom and equality.

Islam and Economic Democracy

The distribution of political power through democracy can not, in practice, ensure democracy without distribution of wealth. Political democracy without economic democracy is meaningless, rather, a misnomer. Ibn Khaldun the father of Sociology was the first political philosopher to pointedly tell in his Muqaddima (prolegomena ) to his Kitab al Iber that for the success of politics, the importance of economics is a condition precedent. Western philosophers also share the same view. Bertrand Russell specifically observed that old-fashioned democracy and new-fashioned Marxism have failed because the former was only political and the latter was only economic. But Islam is the only code of life to cover individual, social, political, economic, national and international spheres of life.

The economic system of Islam is an integral part of Islam within its own framework. The economic system of Islam has an inseparable relationship with political, judicial, legal, cultural and social systems of Islam. And all these branches are fundamentally based on the moral foundation of Islam. So its economic scheme functions in collaboration with other branches of Islam, a complete code of life, for achieving the highest benefit for mankind in a balanced way. Islam, through the concept of ownership of God and specific economic scheme, not only forbids capitalism and exploitation but also ensures equitable distribution of wealth. Ownership of property according to Islam, lies with God as political and legal sovereignty lies with Him: to Him belongs what is in the heavens and on earth and all between them and all beneath the soil.28 The Islamic economic system is based on the concepts of ownership of God, Khilafat, Fraternity and Trusteeship of men, His Vicegerents on this earth.

Around the first quarter of the 7th Century A.D. the declaration of right of the poor in the wealth of the rich was beyond imagination in the context of the then world. But Islam had recognized and declared the right of the needy in the wealth and possessions of the rich.29

Al-Quran declared that men shall be questioned by God as to how far they discharged their duties with regard to their possession and personal selves30. Payment of Zakat has been enjoined as a duty next to Salat (Prayer). Reward has been declared for spending in charity by day and night in secret and in public.31 It has been made incumbent to spend, out of love for Him, for kin, orphans, for the needy, the wayfarer, for those who ask and for ransom to free the slaves.32

Usury and Monopoly

The Islamic Economic System prohibits both usury and monopoly which breed capitalism. Usury is the vehicle of exploitation, so Islam forbids it and encourages trade.33A war is declared from God and the Apostle against usury.34 The Prophet declared : he that monopolises is a wrong doer (Al-Hadith). Under capitalistic system of the West, wealth is circulated among the few rich. Islam encourages circulation of wealth in society and in consequences, hoarding is also prohibited as a great sin.35 To ensure circulation of wealth its rotation between the wealthy people alone is forbidden.36 Islam discourages both niggardliness and extravagance and it strikes a balance between the two.37 Islam takes another revolutionary stand when Al-Quran enjoins that assets beyond the need of the rich one is to be distributed among the poor.38 It ensures equi-distribution of wealth. The success of economic system of Islam reached to the extent that during the Khilafat of Umar Ibn Adbul Aziz, none was available to accept Zakat.

On consideration of democracy practiced in different spheres of life: social, political and economic fields, it can be safely concluded that unlike other religions and man-made isms Islam guaranteed the success of democracy due to its own merit as an integrated system of life covering its all fields.

Charis Waddy having appreciated the Islamic system observes: “These ideas are not merely of moral value. They are legally implemented for Islam brought with it a legal system. A legal principle introduced by the Caliph Umar decrees that if a person dies of starvation, then the penalty for wrongful death should be imposed on all the citizens of the town as though they had killed him.39 She further observes that in Islam, for the first time, an economic theory of equal opportunities and fair distribution were outlined. Islam teaches that God is concerned not only with moral and ethical reforms, but also with social emancipation and economic condition.40

She further exclaimed on Prophet’s extraordinary contribution to world civilization in the field of human affairs including democracy. She in appreciation of the merit of Islam as a complete code of life and greatness of the Prophet of Islam observes:” What does the life of the Prophet mean to us ? When he died at the age of sixty-three, his life’s work had completely transformed his native land. Not only did a new pure faith prevailed, but the right of the woman and the protection of the minors had been put on a totally new basis, politics and economy were reorganized, democracy brought into public life all in a new manner incredibly audacious for those days.”41

The basis of Shariah, the Islamic Law, is Divine Wisdom and its purpose is human welfare both in this worldly life and the hereafter. The All-Wise Creator knows best the real need of mankind, His own creation and vicegerent on this earth, while the so-called secular political leaders can not even properly conceive, and prescribe any real solution of problems.

Iqbal’s criticism of the Western democracy is quite consistent with the caution in Al-Quran : “Wert thou to follow the common run of those on earth, they will lead thee away from the Way of God, they follow nothing but conjecture, they do nothing but lie.” 42 The only solution of man’s participation lies in Islamic brand of democracy which makes it acceptable only under the control and guidance as prescribed in Al-Quran.

Iqbal’s religious devotion without any trace of fanaticism and emotionalism led him to deal dispassionately with issues of life including democracy. Democratic spirit can never be sustained by confining it in casual election, but that spirit must pervade in all spheres of life, literature and culture to integrate and discipline the nation as a whole. Since democracy is inextricably connected with the entire code of life (Islam) so to correct any of the items, entire Islam as a complete code is to be accepted and put in to simultaneous operation, as such Iqbal emphasised and urged upon the Ummah to go back to the pristine purity of Islam, since the cause of the present debacle of Muslim world is departure from the teachings of Al-Quran.

He reminded the Muslim Ummah:

“Woh zamane main muazziz thay Musalman ho kar
Aur tum khwar huey tarek-e-Quran ho kar”

The Western World cunningly took the cover table slogan of democracy to win the election to switch over the various forms of dictatorship. Through the same method, Fascism and Nazism assumed power in Italy and Germany respectively. Even Marxism came to power on the slogan of democracy, i.e., Republic (USSR) in Russia.

Human Rights, Civil Liberty and Human Dignity were put into jeopardy and totally denied. Iqbal was fully justified to hold that Western democracy was a Tamasha (Fun) and according to him if Deen is divorced or separated from politics, what remains is mere Chengizi. According to Iqbal, none knows what would happen after the election is over. The cause of scathing criticism of Western democracy by Iqbal, inter alia, was to stop its un-chartered destination. The only solution of the problem of forms of government of the West, according to Iqbal, is Islam.

References

  1. Dr. Sir Muhammad Iqbal, The Reconstruction of Religious Thought in Islam, Published by Javed Iqbal son of Late Iqbal, Sheikh Muhammad Ashraf, Kashmiri Bazar, Lahore, p.159
  2. Ibid, p.179
  3. Thought and Reflections of Iqbal,(ed.) Syed Wahid, Muhammad Ashraf Publications, Lahore. P.37
  4. Al-Quran, Baqara. 279
  5. Harold J. Laski, Parliamentary Government in England, Allen and Unwin Ltd., London, p.43.
  6. Ibid.,p.96
  7. Harold j. Laski, Democracy in Crisis , George Allen and Unwin Ltd.,p.68.
  8. Ibid.,p.75
  9. Bertrand Russell, The Taming of Power, p.177

10.  Sir Stafford Cripps, Democracy Up-To-Date, George Allen and Unwin Ltd., Museum Street London,p.20

11.  Ibid.,p.54

12.  Ibid.,p.15

13.  Kuldip Nayar, Bangladesh Observer, November 21,1989.

14.  AIR. Journal, 1959,p.50

15.  Edward Benes, Democracy Today and Tomorrow, MacMillan & Co., Ltd., St Martins Street London. 1940, p.218

16.  Harold J.Laski, ”The internal Condition of Democracy”, Reflections on the Revolution of Our Time. Allahabad Central Book Depot, p.189.

17.  John Dewey, Democracy in Readings in Philosophy, John Harman Randal. Jr. (ed.),p.35.

18.  Walt Whitman, “Democratic Vistas in Mass Culture,” The Popular Arts American. (ed.)Bernard Revenberg and David Manning White, The Free Press, New York, MacMillan, Ltd., London, p.35.

19.  Al-Quran, Nissa :1

20.  Al-Quran, Hujurat :13

21.  A.J Toynbee, Civilization on Trial, Oxford University Press, 1949, pp.205-6.

22.  Ibid, p.212.

23.  H.G. Wells, Out Line of History, p.425.

24.  Al-Quran, Al-e-Imran : 159.

25.  Al-Quran, Shura :38.

26.  Al-Hadith.

27.  Charis Waddy, The Muslim Mind, Longman, p.40

28.  Al-Quran,

  1. Ta-Ha:6
  2. Maryam :65

29.  Al-Quran,

  1. Zariyat :19
  2. Maarij : 24-25

30.  Al-Quran, Aal-e-Imran : 186

31.  Al-Quran, Baqara : 274 and 277

32.  Al-Quran, Baqara : 177

33.  Al-Quran, Baqara : 275 and 178

34.  Al-Quran, Baqara : 279

35.  Al-Quran, Tauba : 34-35

36.  Al-Quran, Hashr : 7

37.  Al-Quran,

  1. Bani Isra-il : 26-27
  2. Furqan : 67

38.  Al-Quran, Baqara : 219

39.  Charis Waddy, op.cit.,p.39.

40.  Ibid, p.47.

41.  Ibid, p. 35-36

42.  Al-Quran, An’am : 116

Source:
Iqbal Congress Papers,
Third Allama Iqbal International Congress,
November 9-11, 1998.
University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan.

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